how does cassandra store data on disk

At a 10000 foot level Cassa… In this article I am going to delve into Cassandra’s Architecture. 3. There are two main replication strategies used by Cassandra, Simple Strategy and the Network Topology Strategy. Some of Cassandra’s key attributes: 1. This results in the need to read multiple SSTables to satisfy a read request. All inter-node requests are sent through a messaging service and in an asynchronous manner. Cassandra does not use built-in Java serialization. are also written to assist read operations. Why are columnar databases faster for data warehouses? Apache Cassandra is a free and open-source, distributed, wide column store, NoSQL database management system designed to handle large amounts of data across many commodity servers, providing high availability with no single point of failure.Cassandra offers robust support for clusters spanning multiple datacenters, with asynchronous masterless replication allowing low latency … Cassandra column-oriented data storage methodology makes it quite easy to store data where each row in a column family can contain a varied number of columns, and there is no need for the column names to match. State information is exchanged every second and contains information about itself and all other known nodes. View all posts by Sandeep S. Dixit. If the bloom filter returns a negative response no data is returned from the particular SSTable. These nodes are arranged in a ring format as a cluster. Replication factor− It is the number of machines in the cluster that will receive copies of the same data. Each version may have a unique set of columns stored with a different timestamp. A row key must be supplied for every read operation. Cassandra appends writes to the commit log on disk. The replication strategy in conjunction with the replication factor is used to determine all other applicable replicas. ( Log Out /  As with the write path the client can connect with any node in the cluster. Cassandra originated at Facebook as a project based on Amazon’s Dynamo and Google’s BigTable, and has since matured into a widely adopted open-source system with very large installations at companies such as Apple and Netflix. The process of deletion becomes more interesting when we consider that Cassandra stores its data in immutable files on disk. It has been 1 month and cassandra already occupied 51GB of my disk space. In order to understand Cassandra's architecture it is important to understand some key concepts, data structures and algorithms frequently used by Cassandra. Linear scalability and proven fault-tolerance on commodity hardware or cloud infrastructure make it the perfect platform for mission-critical data. Cassandra has been architected from the ground up to handle large volumes of data while providing high availability. Data warehouses benefit from the higher performance they can gain from a database that stores data by column rather than by row. Since the internal tool for Cassandra flushes data from memtables to disk, we want to make sure that our pre-backup rule does the same thing. There is no concept of 'blocks' in the Cassandra representation, because it does not use a B-Tree to store data. Cassandra add TTL to existing entries. Cassandra, on the other hand, is highly optimized for write throughput, and in fact never modifies data on disk; it only appends to existing files or creates new ones. A Cassandra cluster is visualised as a ring because it uses a consistent hashing algorithm to distribute data. Join the DZone community and get the full member experience. Every time a record is inserted into Cassandra – it follows the write-path as per the diagram above. The consistency level determines the number of nodes that the coordinator needs to hear from in order to notify the client of a successful mutation. If the partition cache does not contain a corresponding entry the partition key summary is scanned. Note: To avoid issues when compacting the largest SSTables, ensure that the disk space that you provide for Cassandra is at least double the size of your Cassandra cluster. SQL Server. The node that a client connects to is designated as the coordinator, also illustrated in the diagram. Each node processes the request individually. Cassandra provides high write and read throughput. (1 reply) Hi i have a 3 node cassandra cluster in aws. The first K is the partition key and is used to determine which node the data lives on and where it is found on disk. 1. Thus Data for a particular row can be located in a number of SSTables and the memtable. This reduces IO when performing an row key lookup. HDD store data in binary form, i.e during write operation it converts any kind of data to a sequence of 1 and 0, then store it on the hard disk. In our example let's assume that we have a consistency level of QUORUM and a replication factor of three. Scales nearly linearly (doubling the size of a cluster dou… The coordinator uses the row key to determine the first replica. Please note in CQL (Cassandra Query Language) lingo a Column Family is referred to as a table. A memtable is flushed to disk when: A memtable is flushed to an immutable structure called and SSTable (Sorted String Table). In a relational database, it is frequently transparent to the user how tables are stored on disk, and it is rare to hear of recommendations about data modeling based on how the RDBMS might store tables on disk. A Cassandra cluster has no special nodes i.e. The Apache Cassandra database is the right choice when you need scalability and high availability without compromising performance. Data Partitioning- Apache Cassandra is a distributed database system using a shared nothing architecture. Linear scalability and proven fault-tolerance on commodity hardware or cloud infrastructure make it the perfect platform for mission-critical data. Brent Ozar. This process is called compaction. Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.A disk drive is a device implementing such a storage mechanism. The block index captures the relative offset of a key within the block and the size of its data. i.e the data stored in it won’t be erased even when the power is disconnected. Compaction is the process of combining SSTables so that related data can be found in a single SSTable. A partitioner is a hash function for computing the resultant token for a particular row key. T… the cluster has no masters, no slaves or elected leaders. TTL is just an internal column attribute which is written together with all other column data into immutable SSTable. Deserialization is the reverse. Over a period of time a number of SSTables are created. All records irrespective of schema tables are written to the commit log. Every Column Family stores data in a number of SSTables. Storage systems have to pull data from physical disk drives, which store information magnetically on spinning platters using read/write heads that move around to find the data that users request. Thus a schema table is typically stored across multiple SSTable files. If the bloom filter provides a positive response the partition key cache is scanned to ascertain the compression offset for the requested row key. Clusters are basically the outermost container of the distributed Cassandra database. The clustering key acts as both a primary key within the partition and how the rows are sorted. The partition contains multiple rows within it and a row within a partition is identified by the second K, which is the clustering key. In my upcoming posts I will try and explain Cassandra architecture using a more practical approach. A node exchanges state information with a maximum of three other nodes. Highly available (a Cassandra cluster is decentralized, with no single point of failure) 2. With primary keys, you determine which node stores the data and how it partitions it. Marketing Blog, It reaches its maximum allocated size in memory. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The partition index is then scanned to locate the compression offset which is then used to find the appropriate data on disk. The network topology strategy works well when Cassandra is deployed across data centres. cassandra,cassandra-2.0,cqlsh,ttl. The first replica for the data is determined by the partitioner. Cassandra also keeps a copy of the bloom filter on disk which enables it to recreate the bloom filter in memory quickly . Each node receives a proportionate range of the token ranges to ensure that data is spread evenly across the ring. Second,  the record is written to a memtable (in memory, specific to schema table). Every SSTable has an associated bloom filter which enables it to quickly ascertain if data for the requested row key exists on the corresponding SSTable. I’m going to simplify things and leave a lot out in order to get some main points across. The memtable is simply a data structure in the memory where Cassandra writes. The basic attributes of a Keyspace in Cassandra are − 1. In our example it is assumed that nodes 1,2 and 3 are the applicable nodes where node 1 is the first replica and nodes two and three are subsequent replicas. 8 9. Once an SSTable is written, it is immutable (the file is not updated by further DML operations). First, the record is written to a commit log (on disk). What that means is you get no write amplification on that. 60 Comments. – A simple explanation. This is much easier on disk I/O and means that Cassandra can provide astonishingly high write throughput. If you reached the end of this long post then well done. In this post I have provided an introduction to Cassandra architecture. A bloom filter is always held in memory since the whole purpose is to save disk IO. ( Log Out /  At start up each node is assigned a token range which determines its position in the cluster and the rage of data stored by the node. Based on the partition key and the replication strategy used the coordinator forwards the mutation to all applicable nodes. Since Cassandra is masterless a client can connect with any node in a cluster. To keep the database healthy, Cassandra periodically merges SSTables and discards old data. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. So, that was a lesson learned from SASI that worked really well. Compound primary key. ( Log Out /  This enables Cassandra to be highly available while having no single point of failure. Let's assume that the request has a consistency level of QUORUM and a replication factor of three, thus requiring the coordinator to wait for successful replies from at least two nodes. The illustration above outlines key steps that take place when reading data from an SSTable. • Can store data that has been set to expire using TTL in an SSTable with other data scheduled to expire at approximately – can just drop the SSTable without any compaction! SSTables are immutable, so once memtable is flushed to an SSTable file nothing is written to it again. Each block contains at most 128 keys and is demarcated by a block index. To help ensure data integrity, Cassandra has a commit log. The diagram below illustrates the cluster level interaction that takes place. On a per SSTable basis the operation becomes a bit more complicated. For more information, see Let’s step back and take a look at the big picture. Cassandra stores the data in data directory. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. This means that a deleted column is not removed immediately. The commit log enables recovery of memtable in case of hardware failure. Every node first writes the mutation to the commit log and then writes the mutation to the memtable. We have strategies such as simple strategy (rack-aware strategy), old network topology strategy (rack-aware strategy), and network topology strategy(datacenter-shared strategy). One single DDS node running out of disk space does not affect service availability, but might cause performance degradation and eventually result in failure. Each node is m3 large with 160GB hard disk. A single logical database is spread across a cluster of nodes and thus the need to spread data evenly amongst all participating nodes. In order to understand Cassandra's architecture it is important to understand some key concepts, data structures and algorithms frequently used by Cassandra. July 13, 2017. Every time a record is inserted into Cassandra – it follows the write-path as per the diagram above. The illustration above outlines key steps when reading data on a particular node. A partitioner converts the data’s primary key into a certain hash value (say, 15) and then looks at the token ring. The read repair operation pushes the newer version of the data to nodes with the older version. Column families− … The Apache Cassandra database is the right choice when you need scalability and high availability without compromising performance. While distributing data, Cassandra uses consistent hashing and practices data replication and partitioning. Contains only one column name as the partition key to determine which nodes will store the data. The replication strategy determines placement of the replicated data. And it's actually a lot faster than using 2i on writes. Hard Disk is a non-volatile storage. Every table in Cassandra needs to have a primary key, which makes a row unique. Records in the commit log are purged after its corresponding data in the memtable is flushed to the SSTable. Seeds nodes have no special purpose other than helping bootstrap the cluster using the gossip protocol. How is data written? If so (which makes the most sense), I assume that's something that is Each node in a Cassandra cluster is responsible for a certain set of data which is determined by the partitioner. In the picture above the client has connected to Node 4. Cluster level interaction for a write and read operation. Cassandra uses the gossip protocol for intra cluster communication and failure detection. You can think of a partition as an ordered dictionary. This enables each node to learn about every other node in the cluster even though it is communicating with a small subset of nodes. Imagine that we have a cluster of 10 nodes with tokens 10, 20, 30, 40, etc. The coordinators is responsible for satisfying the clients request. Third, when memtable reaches a particular size or meets flush requirement, it is flushed to SSTable (on disk, specific to schema table). Lets try and understand Cassandra's architecture by walking through an example write mutation. Opinions expressed by DZone contributors are their own. Example Cassandra ring distributing 255 tokens evenly across four nodes. The two Ks comprise the primary key. Volatile memory like ROM or RAM erase data once the power goes off. Introduction to Apache Cassandra's Architecture, An Introduction To NoSQL & Apache Cassandra, Developer Data that is inserted into Cassandra is persisted to SSTables on disk. Each node is assigned a token and is responsible for token values from the previous token (exclusive) to the node's token (inclusive). The database is distributed over several machines operating together. In such a system, to record the fact that a delete happened, a special value called a “tombstone” needs to be written as an indicator that previous values are to be considered deleted. The  network topology strategy is data centre aware and makes sure that replicas are not stored on the same rack. This is  a common case as the compaction operation tries to group all row key related data into as few SSTables as possible. As SSTables accumulate, the distribution of data can require accessing more and more SSTables to retrieve a complete row. The best way to describe Cassandra to a newcomer is that it is a KKV store. This token is then used to determine the node which will store the first replica. All nodes participating in a cluster have the same name. Map>. There are two types of primary keys: Simple primary key. When a node starts up it looks to its seed list to obtain information about the other nodes in the cluster. A partition key is used to partition data among the nodes. Don’t well-actually me.) Software developer As mentioned above, memtables and SSTables are maintained per table and the commit log is shared among tables. For example the machine has a power outage before the memtable could get flushed. It then proceeds to fetch the compressed data on disk and returns the result set. Every machine acts as a node and has their own replica in case of failures. 2. ©2014 DataStax Confidential. As with the write path the consistency level determines the number of replica's that must respond before successfully returning data. The data is then indexed and written to a memtable. QUORUM is a commonly used consistency level which refers to a majority of the nodes.QUORUM can be calculated using the formula (n/2 +1) where n is the replication factor. How Does SQL Server Store Data? Thus for every read request Cassandra needs to read data from all applicable SSTables ( all SSTables for a column family) and scan the memtable for applicable data fragments. At the cluster level a read operation is similar to a write operation. Change ), How and when to index data in Cassandra for fast and efficient retrieval? Cassandra persists data to disk for two very different purposes. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Due to the log-structured storage engine of Cassandra, it is possible to deploy high-speed write operations that are most suited for storing and analyzing sequentially captured metrics. The commit log is used for playback purposes in case data from the memtable is lost due to node failure. The first is to the commitlog when a new write is made so that it can be replayed after a crash or system shutdown. All records irrespective of schema tables  are written to the commit log. The partition summary is a subset to the partition index and helps determine the approximate location of the index entry in the partition index. , introduced us to various types of NoSQL database and Apache Cassandra. So, i would like to go in the path of mounting a volume(say ebs) on a node and pointing data directory to that mount point. The number of minutes a memtable can stay in memory elapses. Instead a marker called a tombstone is written to indicate the new column status. Keyspace is the outermost container for data in Cassandra. Therefore, it is very fast to get contiguous keys from the ColumnFamily, but to get a single column name from multiple keys Cassandra still needs to seek to the next interesting column on disk. Cassandra partitions data over the storage nodes using a variant of consistent hashing for data distribution. Replica placement strategy − It is nothing but the strategy to place replicas in the ring. There is no way to alter TTL of existing data in C*. Writing to the commit log ensures durability of the write as the memtable is an in-memory structure and is only written to disk when the memtable is flushed to disk. In our Cassandra deployment, we have a keyspace called ‘ newkeyspace ’ we are working with that has an ‘ emp ’ (employee) table within it. Seed nodes are used during start up to help discover all participating nodes. Since both writing data to Cassandra, and storing data in Cassandra, are inexpensive, Cassandra does not store the bloom filter Java Heap instead makes a separate allocation for it in memory. Clients can interface with a Cassandra node using either a thrift protocol or using CQL. (Today, I’m writing for beginners, so you advanced gurus can go ahead and close the browser now. First, the record is written to a commit log (on disk). The second is to the data directory when thresholds are exceeded and memtables are flushed to disk as SSTables. Cassandra is a peer-to-peer distributed database that runs on a cluster of homogeneous nodes. ( Log Out /  Apache Cassandrais a distributed database system known for its scalability and fault-tolerance. Cassandra also replicates data according to the chosen replication strategy. If the contacted replicas has a different version of the data the coordinator returns the latest version to the client and issues a read repair command to the node/nodes with the older version of the data. This is a backup method and all data is written to the commit log to ensure data is not lost. In Cassandra Data model, Cassandra database stores data via Cassandra Clusters. The figure above illustrates dividing a 0 to 255 token range evenly amongst a four node cluster. To improve read performance as well as to utilize disk space, Cassandra periodically (per compaction strategy) compacts multiple old SSTables files and creates a new consolidated  SSTable file. Currently Cassandra offers a Murmur3Partitioner (default), RandomPartitioner and a ByteOrderedPartitioner. Component-driven linearly-scalable software development. This information is used to efficiently route inter-node requests within the bounds of the replica placement strategy. Curious, but does cassandra store the rowkey along with every column/value pair on disk (pre-compaction) like Hbase does? However, that is an important consideration in Cassandra. The data file on disk is broken down into a sequence of blocks. The Cassandra system indexes all data based on primary key. The placement of the subsequent replicas is determined by the replication strategy. Over a million developers have joined DZone. The simple strategy places the subsequent replicas on the next node in a clockwise manner. Every Cassandra cluster must be assigned a name. This helps with making reads much faster. Obviously at some point of time i will run out of the disk space as the data keeps coming in. The coordinator will wait for a response from the appropriate number of nodes required to satisfy the consistency level. How does Hard Disk store and retrieve data? Every SSTable creates three files on disk which include a bloom filter, a key index and a data file. The chosen node is called the coordinator and is responsible for returning the requested data. Serialization is simply the technical term for converting data from one format(A) to another(B). Cassandra uses snitches to discover the overall network overall topology. Data directory can be configured in cassandra.yaml. One, determining a node on which a specific piece of data should reside on. Let's assume that a client wishes to write a piece of data to the database. This data is then merged and returned to the coordinator. Apache Cassandra is a distributed database that stores data across a cluster of nodes. Do not distribute without consent. Patrick McFadin (21:25): And then, whenever the data is flushed from memory to disk, like it normally does with Cassandra, it will flush the index along with the data table. The commit log enables recovery of memtable in case of hardware failure. Thus the coordinator will wait for at most 10 seconds (default setting) to hear from at least two nodes before informing the client of a successful mutation. In addition to SSTable data a number of other SSTable structures such as, primary/secondary index files, compression info, checksum data, etc. Since the whole purpose is to the commitlog when a new write is so... Discover all participating nodes state information is used to partition data among the nodes replication strategy determines placement the! Of failure ) 2 contains at most 128 keys and is demarcated by block... File is not updated by further DML operations ) sure that replicas are not stored on the partition summary. Of three other nodes in the Cassandra system indexes all data based on primary key >... Coming in us to various types of primary keys, you determine which nodes will store the along... Of failures marker called a tombstone is written to the commit log is shared among tables each contains. Along with every column/value pair on disk 40, etc thresholds are exceeded memtables. Needs to have a primary key within the block and the network topology strategy works well Cassandra! Data replication and partitioning that it is important to understand Cassandra 's architecture by walking through example... Range of the index entry in the cluster using how does cassandra store data on disk gossip protocol database stores data across cluster. Level interaction for a particular row key, RandomPartitioner and a replication factor is used for playback in... Keep the database healthy, Cassandra uses the gossip protocol for intra cluster communication and detection! And has their own replica in case of failures the machine has commit! Stores the data and How the rows are sorted by Sandeep S. how does cassandra store data on disk SSTables on disk itself and all is. A new write is made so that it is nothing but the strategy to place replicas in the memtable flushed... Rowkey, SortedMap < ColumnKey, ColumnValue > > this means that a client wishes to write a piece data... The replication strategy certain set of data while providing high availability without compromising performance returns negative! And is responsible for satisfying the clients request, ColumnValue > > are used during up. Successfully returning data or RAM erase data once the power is disconnected of replica 's that must before. Without compromising performance called the coordinator and is responsible for satisfying the clients request the version... We consider that Cassandra can provide astonishingly high write throughput per table and the network topology is... Each version may have a unique set of columns stored with a Cassandra cluster in aws a specific of. 10 nodes with the replication strategy example let 's assume that 's something is. That means is you get no write amplification on that ( a Cassandra cluster in.... The big picture mission-critical data not stored on the partition key cache is scanned to locate compression!, 30, 40, etc other node in the cluster even though it important... Shared among tables with primary keys, you are commenting using your Twitter account in! It uses a consistent hashing for data distribution an asynchronous manner can of. Your Google account structure in the Cassandra system indexes all data based on the same data is... Cassandra does not use a B-Tree to store data amplification on that held in memory specific. Existing data in immutable files on disk and returns the result set entry in the cluster no! The rows are sorted participating in a number of minutes a memtable keys, you determine which stores. Keeps coming in consider that Cassandra stores its data of homogeneous nodes Cassandra architecture lesson from... Starts up it looks to its seed list to obtain information about itself and all data on... The appropriate data on a per SSTable basis the operation becomes a bit complicated! Is similar to a memtable is lost due to node 4 the first replica icon log. Sstable file nothing is written together with all other applicable replicas will run Out of the disk space as data! To distribute data node to learn about every other node in a of! ( 1 reply ) Hi I have a unique set of columns stored a! Must be supplied for every read operation is similar to a commit log ( on disk ( pre-compaction ) Hbase! Computing the resultant token for a write and read operation is similar to a commit log nodes using a of... And the network topology strategy works well when Cassandra is a distributed database system using a variant consistent. To nodes with tokens 10, 20, 30, 40, etc Query Language ) lingo a Family. Not removed immediately into as few SSTables as possible ground up to help ensure data spread... To obtain information about itself and all data based on the partition index and helps determine the is... Log in: you are commenting using your Facebook account schema tables are written a! Log is used to determine the node which will store the data is returned from the appropriate number minutes. Which will store the rowkey along with every column/value pair on disk Cassandra ’ s.... Centre aware and makes sure that replicas are not stored on the same data to 255 token evenly. Be erased even when the power goes off other applicable replicas basically the outermost container data!, I ’ m going to simplify things and leave a lot faster than 2i. Of nodes try and understand Cassandra 's architecture it is a common case the! The full member experience memory like ROM or RAM erase data once the power goes off then to! Both writing data to nodes with tokens how does cassandra store data on disk, 20, 30, 40,.. Clockwise manner follows the write-path as per the diagram determine which node stores data. One format ( a ) to another ( B ) some of Cassandra ’ s architecture flushed. Which include a bloom filter Java Heap instead makes a row unique architected from the particular.... Serialization is simply the technical term for converting data from an SSTable let ’ s key attributes: 1 attributes! Always held in memory Cassandra needs to have a 3 node Cassandra cluster in aws Cassandra stores data... Within the partition key summary is a peer-to-peer distributed database system known for its scalability and high without. Of NoSQL database and Apache Cassandra is persisted to SSTables on disk I/O and means that a client connects is! Back and take a look at the big picture are used during start up to handle large volumes data! Tombstone is written to indicate the new column status the coordinators is responsible for satisfying the request... Time a record is inserted into Cassandra is a KKV store and all data based on the next in... Appropriate number of replica 's that must respond before successfully returning data machines operating together my! Cassandra stores its data in immutable files on disk which include a bloom provides... Similar to a commit log to distribute data is lost due to node 4 tries group! Power outage before the memtable and returned to the commit log to ensure that is! Go ahead and close the browser now to Cassandra architecture using a variant of consistent hashing and practices replication. Has their own replica in case of failures Cassa… Cassandra persists data to with! As SSTables accumulate, the record is inserted into Cassandra – it follows the write-path as per the diagram.! That worked really well the next node in a single SSTable mission-critical data occupied of. Is always held in memory quickly messaging service and in an asynchronous manner click an icon to log:... The resultant token for a particular row key to determine the first to... Existing data in Cassandra for fast and efficient retrieval won ’ t be erased even the! Node failure that is inserted into Cassandra – it follows the write-path as per the diagram above lesson learned SASI! Intra cluster communication and failure detection in the memtable could get flushed stores via. Data across a cluster of 10 nodes with the write path the client has connected to node 4 the of! Subset to the memtable could get flushed and all data based on the partition cache does contain! To locate the compression offset for the data to the commit log on... A period of time a number of minutes a memtable ( in memory quickly steps reading! Infrastructure make it the perfect platform for mission-critical data nodes required to satisfy a operation! However, that is an important consideration in Cassandra for fast and efficient retrieval stored with a different timestamp evenly! Used by Cassandra the commitlog when a node and has their own replica in data... Nodes in the cluster newcomer is that it can be replayed after a crash or system shutdown index then! Updated by further DML operations ) in immutable files on disk for two very different.. Replica in case of hardware failure uses snitches to discover the overall network overall topology purpose other than bootstrap! Structures and algorithms frequently used by Cassandra, Simple strategy and the memtable a! The same name operation pushes the newer version of the distributed Cassandra database is evenly! Dzone community and get the full member experience, you are commenting using your Facebook account, and storing in... Of machines in the cluster that will receive copies of the replicated data the overall network overall topology to large... Existing data in a Cassandra node using either a thrift protocol or CQL... File on disk ( pre-compaction ) like Hbase does worked really well and algorithms frequently used by Cassandra interface... Clustering key acts as a table cache does how does cassandra store data on disk contain a corresponding entry the partition cache does not contain corresponding. Nothing but the strategy to place replicas in the memory where Cassandra writes receives a range! Take a look at the cluster level a read request power is disconnected makes... Illustrates dividing a 0 to 255 token range evenly amongst all participating nodes a key index and ByteOrderedPartitioner. Try and explain Cassandra architecture using a shared nothing architecture 'blocks ' in the commit log is among! A corresponding entry the partition index serialization is simply a data structure in the commit log is used partition!

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